Glossary

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Art Paper
Smooth coated paper obtained by adding a coating of china clay compound to one or both sides. Suitable for high quality work.

Binding
The various methods used to secure pages or sections in a book.

Binding Margin
An allowance made on the binding edge of a page for the book to be bound.

Bleed
The section of artwork which extends beyond the final trim size of the job to assist the cutting operation.

Blind Embossing
A raised impression made by pressing the stock against a special die.

Burst Bound
A method of binding where the sections are gathered in order, one on top of the other. The spines of the folded sections are perforated to allow glue to penetrate between the folded sections. Burst binding is suitable for both coated and uncoated stock and is considerably stronger than perfect binding.

Colour Bar
A strip printed onto the sheet showing combinations of the printing inks being used as screens and solids. It is used to help maintain consistency of ink coverage and density.

Colour Separations
The division of a multi-coloured original or line copy into the process colours. Spot colours can also be known as a separation.

Concertina Fold
Where each fold opens in the opposite direction.

Foil Blocking
A process of stamping a design onto the stock without the use of ink. This involves using a coloured foil with pressure from a heated die or block.

Forme Cut (also known as Die Cut)
To cut paper using a forme made into the shape of the finished product.

Four Colour Process (or Full Colour)
Printing in full colours using four colour separations – cyan, magenta, yellow and black.

Gatefold
Flap from the fore edge with a fold running parallel to spine.

Grain
The direction in which the paper fibres lie.

Grip
The edge of the sheet taken up by the ‘grippers’ as the sheet travels through the press.

GSM (Grams per Square Metre)
The unit of measure for paper weight.

Gutter
A margin or allowance made by printers between pages to facilitate the printing and binding process.

Head to Head
When the job is imposed with the head of one page facing the tail of the opposite page.

Hickies
The term used to describe dust particles that stick to the printing plate or blanket which then appear on the printed sheet as a dark spot surrounded by a halo.

Imagesetter
Device for converting electronic files into negative or positive film.

Imposition
The method of arranging individual pages on a sheet. When the sheet is printed both sides and folded, the pages will fall in their correct order.

Impression Cylinder
The cylinder of a printing machine which brings the paper into contact with the printing plate or blanket cylinder.

Kisscut
The type of cutting employed when dealing with self-adhesive material. Only the top layer is cut enabling it to be peeled away without disturbing the base.

Laminate / Cellosheen
A thin transparent plastic coating to provide protection and give a glossy or matt finish.

Lithography
A printing process based on the principle of the natural aversion of water to ink. The printing plate is treated so that the image will accept ink and repel water and the background of the printing plate will accept water and repel ink.

Matt Art
A coated paper with a dull finish.

Overprinting
Printing over an area already printed.

Overs
Additional paper required to compensate for spoilage during printing and binding.

Pantone
The worldwide ink colour matching system.

Parallel fold
A method of folding where two parallel folds produce a six page sheet.

PDF (Portable Document Format)
Format that allows documents to be passed from one computer to another in any platform.

Perforations
Small scores put into a form or page to enable it to be easily removed by tearing.

PMS (Pantone Matching System)
Internationally recognized standard for matching, co-coordinating and mixing printing inks to produce specially formulated colours.

Proof
A copy taken from type or film for checking purposes before final printing.

Proof Sticker
A sticker attached to the back of a proof upon which the client marks comments indicating the status of the job, for example, ready for press, further proof required, etc.

RIP (Raster Image Processor)
The hardware engine which calculates the bitmapped image of text and graphics from a series of instructions.

Resolution
The amount of digital information contained within an image or output device, measured in DPI (dots per inch).

Saddle Stitching
A method of binding where folded sections are gathered one inside another and wire staples are then passed through the spine.

Score / Crease
Mechanically grooving a sheet, particularly if it is heavier stock, to enable it to be folded without cracking.

Section Sewn
A style of binding where the sections are stitched together with thread rather than being stapled or glued.

Self Cover
A cover printed on the same stock as the text of a publication.

Sheetwork
A method of printing a section. Half the pages of a section are imposed and printed on one side of the paper, then the paper is passed through the machine again where the other half of the pages are printed.

Spot Colour
Separate colours not made up of a mixture of cyan, magenta, yellow and black. Usually printed in addition to the four process colours as a five or six colour job or on their own as a one, two or three colour job.

Spot Varnish
To put a varnish coating on a printed sheet in a local area only. Usually used on photos or covers to enhance appearance.

Swatch
A colour sample.

ThermoFuse Technology
ThermoFuse is the next level of digital platemaking. There are no chemicals in the process. The laser forms the printing image, and nothing affects it after exposure.

Trapping
An intentional overlap in the printing process to prevent gaps along a printed object’s edges in a separated image. This can occur with slight misalignment or movement in the press.

Trim
The cutting of the final product to its correct size using the marks incorporated on the printed sheet.

UV Gloss
Coating applied to paper stock to enhance its appearance. Most commonly used on covers and as a spot coating on photographs.

Varnishing
A finishing process whereby a transparent ‘matt’ or ‘gloss’ varnish is applied over the printed sheet.

Wiro Bound
Continuous series of double wire loops run through slots that have been punched in the binding edge of a booklet.

Work and Turn
A method of printing where pages are imposed on one plate. One side of the paper is then printed and the sheet is then turned over and printed again using the same plate. The finished sheet is then cut in half to give two identical copies.

Work and Tumble
A method of printing where pages are imposed together. The sheet is then printed on one side with the sheet being tumbled from front to rear (rather than left to right) to print the opposite side.

Work Size
The size of the paper used to print the job.